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The Promises And Limits Of International Criminal Justice: The "Extraordinary Chambers" In Cambodia

Arts, Popular Culture and social change in the new Indonesia

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Foreword
Bunyan Saptomo (Indonesian Consul General)
 
The Fall of Suharto and the Rise of Culture (?): An Overview of the Seminar
Michael Leaf (UBC, CSEAR)
1
Viewing the Nation from the City in Contemporary Indonesian Women’s Urban Writing
Manneke Budiman (UBC, Asian Studies; University of Indonesia)
13
Indonesian Textiles from Dress to Art
Michael Howard (Simon Fraser University, Anthropology)
33
“Back to the City:” A Note on Urban Architecture in the New Indonesia
Abidin Kusno (UBC, Insitute for Asian Research)
61
Watching the Logic through an Upside-down Mind
Heri Dono (Artist, Yogyakarta)
97
Nostalgia in Yogyakarta: The Film Biola Tak Berdawai (Stringless Violin)
Tineke Hellwig (UBC, Asian Studies)
103
Languages of Traumas, Bodies and Myths: Learning to Speak Again in Post-1998 Indonesian Theatre
Michael Bodden (University of Victoria, Pacific and Asian Studies)
121
Notes, Concerns and Hopes about Javanese Gamelan
Sutrisno Hartana (Simon Fraser University, School for the Contemporary Arts)
155
The Dynamics of Contemporary Music in the Post-Suharto Era: A Report from the Field
Franki Raden (University of Toronto, Humanities)
163
Notes on Contributors 167 PDF

 

The Poor at Risk: Surviving the Economic Crisis in Southeast Asia

Final Report of the Project: Social Safety Net Programs in Selected Southeast Asian Countries, 1997-2000
 
Prepared by the joint Canada-Southeast Asia Project Team:
T.G. McGee
Leonora Angeles
Cynthia Bautista
Sity Daud
Geoff Hainsworth
Steffanie Scott
Bakti Setiawan
Somchai Suksiriserekul
Vu Tuan Anh
 
Centre for Southeast Asian Research
Institute of Asian Research, University of British Columbia
 
This report was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency,
administered by the Conference Board of Canada and presented to the Human Resources Working Group of APEC.
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES                                                           
 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                                     
 
NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF PROJECT PARTICIPANTS                          
 
Chapter 1: THE POOR AT RISK: SURVIVING THE ECONOMIC CRISIS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA                              
T.G. McGee and Steffanie Scott                                                        
 
Chapter 2: INDONESIA                                                                                                                          
Bakti Setiawan                                                                            
 
Chapter 3: THAILAND                                                                                                                           
Somchai Suksiriserekul                                                                 
 
Chapter 4: PHILIPPINES                                                                                                                         
Cynthia Bautista, Leonora Angeles and Josephine Dionisio                       
 
Chapter 5: MALAYSIA                                                                                                                           
Sity Daud                                                                                  
 
Chapter 6: VIETNAM                                                                                                                            
Vu Tuan Anh                                                                              
 
Chapter 7: A NEW ARCHITECTURE FOR SOCIAL POLICY: FORWARD ENGAGEMENT FOR FUTURE RISK
T.G. McGee and Steffanie Scott                                                         
 
APPENDIX 1:
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS IN POLICY WORKSHOP, BANGKOK, 23-25 JULY, 2000                                                                                                                                  
 
APPENDIX 2:
GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS/ RESPONSES TO THE CRISIS IN THE PHILIPPINES                                                                                                                                       
APPENDIX 3:
LIST OF SAMPLE NGO-INITIATED PROGRAMS REFLECTING THE RANGE OF SOCIAL SAFETY NETS IN THE PHILIPPINES                                                                            

 

DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
CHAPTER 1. THE POOR AT RISK: SURVIVING THE ECONOMIC CRISIS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
T.G. McGee and Steffanie Scott
 
1. INTRODUCTION
 
2. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 The Southeast Asian Background
2.2 Engaging Definitions of Poverty
2.3 The Role of the State in Poverty Alleviation in a Time of Shocks
2.4 The Diversity of Poverty, Gender, Ethnicity, Urban and Rural Poverty: Towards a Concept of Plural Poverties
 
3. METHODOLOGY
 
4. GLOBALIZATION, DEVELOPMENT AND THE FINANCIAL CRISIS
4.1 Framework for analysis of social impacts
4.2 Transmission of social impacts
4.3 Impact on the Poor
4.4 Coping with Poverty in Times of Crisis. A Working Typology
 
5. CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF THE PROJECT
5.1 Issue One: Establishing the Context
5.2 Issue Two: Distinguishing Between Poverty Reduction and Poverty Alleviation Programs
5.3 Issue Three: Identifying the Institutional Components of the Delivery of poverty alleviation programs
5.4 Issue Four: Identifying the Capital Sources for Poverty Alleviation
5.5 Issue Five: Targeting the Impacted Groups: Accepting Plural Poverties
5.6 Issue Six. Designing Specifically Targeted Programs for Women, the Elderly and Children
5.7 Issue Seven. Developing an Effective Basket of Programs
5.8 Issue Eight: Ongoing Monitoring of the Poverty Alleviation Responses
5.9 Issue Nine: The Evaluation of Poverty Alleviation Programs
5.10 Issue Ten: The Use of ‘Exemplary Practices’ Case Studies
5.11 Issue Eleven: Local Understandings of Poverty and Social Policy
 
6. ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT
 
References

CHAPTER 2. INDONESIA
Bakti Setiawan
 
1. INTRODUCTION
Aims of the Report
 
2. THE CONTEXT
2.1 Specific features of Indonesia
2.2 Poverty alleviation policy and programs
2.3 Specific features of Indonesia’s political and social situation
2.4 Indonesia’s definition of poverty
 
3. THE IMPACT OF THE CRISIS
3.1 Main features of the crisis
3.2 Acceleration of numbers in poverty
3.3 Responses to the crisis
3.3.1 Institutional responses
3.3.2 Household/individual coping strategy responses
 
4. THE CRISIS AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE
 
5. DELIVERING POVERTY PROGRAMS (1997-1999)
5.1 A Typology of SSN Programs
5.2 Description of SSN Programs
5.2.1 Food security
5.2.2 Social Protection
5.2.3 Employment Generation (Padat Karya)
5.2.4 Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Schemes
5.2.5 New Initiatives
 
6. EVALUATING POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMS
 
7. BEST PRACTICES CASE STUDIES
7.1 Community Recovery Program (CRP)
7.2 Urban solid waste management (PLSP): Community based income generating
7.3 Social Protection by Community: the story of street children
7.4 Suara Ibu Peduli: The Voice of Women Who Care
 
8. FROM SOCIAL SAFETY NETS TO SOCIAL POLICY
 
9. CONCLUSION: POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
 
References
List of acronyms

CHAPTER 3. THAILAND
Somchai Suksiriserekul
 
1. INTRODUCTION
 
2. CONTEXT
2.1 Specific features of the country
2.2 Poverty Alleviation Policy as Expressed in Development Plans pre-1997
2.3 Special features of the country's political economy
2.4 Poverty definition
 
3. THE IMPACT OF THE CRISIS
3.1 Main features of the crisis impacts on the poor
3.2 Acceleration in poverty incidence
3.3 Responses: Institutional responses and household / individual coping strategies
 
4. THE CRISIS AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE
4.1 Changes in political leadership and governmental programs
4.2 Changes in systems of governance
4.3 Institutional changes affecting the poverty program
 
5. DELIVERY OF POVERTY PROGRAM (1997-1999)
5.1 A typology
5.2 The background, development and delivery of poverty alleviation programs during the crisis
 
6. EVALUATING POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMS
Social Sector Program Loans (SSPL)
The Miyazawa plan
The Urban Community Development Office (UCDO)
Social Investment Project (SIP)
The Chaipattana Foundation
 
7. BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES
7.1 Basic Needs
7.2 Employment Generation
7.3 Enterprise capacity building
 
8. FROM SOCIAL SAFETY NETS TO SOCIAL POLICY
 
9. CONCLUSION: POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
 
References
List of acronyms

CHAPTER 4. Philippines
Cynthia Bautista, Leonora Angeles and Josephine Dionisio
 
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Objectives and Methodology of the Study
1.2 Some Definitions
1.3 Organization of the Chapter
 
2. DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF PHILIPPINE SOCIETY
         2.1 Philippine Development in the 1980s and 1990s
         2.2 Measures of Poverty in the Philippines
 
3. IMPACT OF THE 1997 ASIAN CRISIS AND RESPONSES TO IT: A SYNTHESIS OF EXISTING LITERATURE
         3.1 Impact
         3.2 Gender Differential Impact of the Asian Crisis
         3.3 Informal and Institutional Responses to the Crisis
 
4. INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXTS FOR ASSESSING SOCIAL SAFETY NETS
         4.1 The 1991 Local Government Code and the Devolution of Powers
         4.2 Poverty Alleviation Programs
 
5. INSTITUTIONAL SOCIAL SAFETY NETS: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT
         5.1 On Government-Initiated SSNPs
         5.2 On NGO-Initiated SSNPs
 
6. BEST PRACTICES
         6.1 Government-Initiated SSNPs: The SOUTHEAST ASIA-Capital Integrated Program
         6.2 Non-Government Organizations (NGOs): Community-Based Water and Coastal Resource Management Program of the Center for Empowerment and Resource Development, Inc. (CERD)
         6.3 Surigao City Primary Health Care (PHC) Federated Women’s Club
 
7. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
 
CHAPTER 5. MALAYSIA
Sity Daud
 
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Preliminary definitions
1.2 Social Safety Nets
1.3 Social policy
 
2. THE CONTEXT
2.1 Specific features of Malaysian economic development
 
3. THE IMPACT OF THE CRISIS
3.1 Increased poverty
 
4. FORMAL RESPONSES
4.1 Governmental organizations
4.2 Quasi-governmental agencies
4.3 Non-Governmental Organizations
4.4 Household / individual
 
5. DELIVERING SSN PROGRAMS
5.1 Examples of how programs are developed and delivered
PPRT
Micro-credit facilities (quasi-governmental organizations)
Micro-credit facilities (NGOs)
 
6. EVALUATING POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMS
 
7. JUSTIFYING EXEMPLAR PRACTICES
 
8. CONCLUSION
 
References

CHAPTER 6. VIETNAM
Vu Tuan Anh
 
1. INTRODUCTION
 
2. CONTEXT
2.1. Specific features of country
2.2. Socio-economic development process prior to July 1997
2.3 Country definitions of poverty
 
3. THE IMPACT OF THE CRISIS
3.1. Economic impacts
3.2. Social impacts
 
4. COPING RESPONSES
4.1. Government policies responses
4.2. Coping strategies of quasi-governmental, non-governmental organisations and communities
4.3 Coping strategies of households
 
5. SOCIAL SAFETY NETS AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMS
5.1 A typology
5.2 Programs supporting the chronic poor
The Social Guarantee Fund for Veterans and War Invalids
The Social Guarantee Fund for Regular Relief
5.3 Programs supporting the temporary poor
The Contingency Fund for Pre-harvest Starvation and Natural Disasters
5.4. National Program for Hunger Eradication and Poverty Reduction
5.5. Other national development programs related to poverty alleviation
 
6. BEST PRACTICES CASE STUDY
6.1 Micro-credit programs in Vietnam
Governmental agents
National development programs
Quasi-governmental agents
People's Credit Funds (PCFs)
Mass organisations
6.2 Case study: The Compassion Credit Funds
 
7. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
 
References
List of Acronyms
 
Chapter 7. A New Architecture for Social Policy:
Preparing for Future Risk
T.G. McGee and Steffanie Scott
 
1. INTRODUCTION
 
2. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
2.1 Recommendation One: Establishing the Context of Poverty Reduction and Alleviation
2.2 Recommendation Two: Developing More Comprehensive and Effective Definitions of Poverty
2.3 Recommendation Three: Developing an Effective Institutional Framework for Social Safety Net Programs
2.4 Recommendation Four: Identifying the Capital Sources for Social Safety Net Programs
2.5 Recommendation Five: Targeting the Impacted Groups: Recognizing Plural Poverties
2.6 Recommendation Six: The Importance of Targeting Special Social Safety Net Programs for Particularly Vulnerable Groups, Including Women, the Elderly, and Children
2.7 Recommendation Seven: Developing an Integrated Package of Programs
2.8 Recommendation Eight: Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluation of Programs
2.9 Recommendation Nine: The Evaluation of Poverty Programs
2.10 Recommendation Ten: The Use of Exemplary Case Studies
 
3. CONCLUSION – INCORPORATING RISK MANAGEMENT INTO SOCIAL POLICY: BREAKING DOWN THE DEHUMANIZED LANDSCAPE
 
References

List of Figures and Tables
 
CHAPTER 1
Figure 1.1: Southeast Asia: Basic Social and Economic Indicators in the Mid-1990s
Figure 1.2: Percentage of the Population Employed in Agriculture and Industry, 1980 and 1990
Figure 1.3: Amount of Foreign Direct Investment Received in Asian Countries, 1993
Figure 1.4: Southeast Asia: Some Basic Demographic Indicators, 1997
Figure 1.5: Official Deployment of Workers, 1971-1997
Figure 1.6: Indicators of Changes in Women’s Roles
Figure 1.7: Distribution of Income or Consumption in the Late 1980s or Early 1990s
Figure 1.8: Incidence of Poverty in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand
Figure 1.9: Functions of the State
Figure 1.10: Household-Level Assets and Links to Other Levels
Figure 1.11: Poor households describe Many Mechanisms for Coping with Declines in Well-being in Vietnam
Figure 1.12: Household Responses for Mobilizing Assets in Response to Changes in Economic Circumstances
Figure 1.13: Main Sources of Risk
Figure 1.14: Social Impact of the Economic Crisis
Figure 1.15: Policy Instruments for Poverty Alleviation Strategies in Asia
Figure 1.16: Types of Social Safety Net Programs
Figure 1.17: Social Impacts of the Financial Crisis
Figure 1.18: Typology of Coping Responses to Alleviate Increasing Poverty at a Time of Crisis
 
CHAPTER 2. INDONESIA
Table 2.1: Indonesia: Level of Urbanization
Table 2.2. Growth in Employment in Major Sectors, Urban and Rural Indonesia, 1977-1996
Table 2.3. Economic Growth and Poverty Condition in Indonesia Prior to the 1997 Crisis
Table 2.4. Distribution of Poor Population in Java-Bali Region and Outside Java-Bali Region 1984-1996
Table 2.5. Poverty Alleviation Programs in Indonesia in the Pre Crisis Period
Table 2.6. The Growth of the Gross Domestic Product, 1996-1998
Table 2.7: Labor Force in Indonesia, 1990 - 1998
Table 2.8. The Changing Pattern of Sectoral Employment, 1990-1998
Table 2.9: Employment Share of the Informal Sector (%)
Table 2.10: Proportion of Workers by Hours of Work (%)
Table 2.11: Participation and Dropouts (DO) in Primary and Secondary Schools
Table 2.12: Summary on Poverty Number Estimates
Table 2.13: Funding Allocation for FR 1998/1999 SSN by Sectors
Table 2.14: Funding Support by Donors and International Organizations4
Table 2.15: A Typology of SSN Programs in Indonesia
Table 2.16: Funding Allocation for SSN Programs for the 1999/2000 fiscal year
Table 2.17: Core SSN Schemes
Table 2.18: Mis-targeted funds and graft in 6 core/basic SSN programs
Table 2.19: CRP Fund Request Report According to Areas of Services
Table 2.20: CRP Funding Request Report According to the Amount of Budget Proposed
Table 2.21: CRP Progress (December, 1999)
 
CHAPTER 3. THAILAND
Figure 3.1: Thailand’s annual growth rate of real GDP between 1980-1996
Figure 3.2: The growth rate of urban population in Thailand between 1960-1995
Figure 3.3: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Thailand, 1990-1998 (US$ billion)
Figure 3.4: The typology of poverty alleviation programs delivered during the economic crisis
Table 3.1: percentage of poor by region
Table 3.2: Numbers covered by free medical care program for the poor and budget appreciation, 1988-1997.
Table 3.3: The result of the poverty alleviation project during 1993-1996
Table 3.4: Average poverty line for Thailand
Table 3.5: Incidence of poverty in Thailand
Table 3.6: Relative poverty in Thailand
Table 3.7: The inflow of capital to Thailand's private sector after the financial liberalization
Table 3.8: Thailand’s foreign debt in the private and public sectors after the financial liberalization
Table 3.9: Thailand’s short-term and long-term foreign debts after the financial liberalization
Table 3.10: The rate of inflation in Thailand during the currency crisis (1996 - 1998)
Table 3.11: Government finance during the currency crisis (1996-1998)
Table 3.12: Government Expenditure and Amendments for 1997-1998 (in million baht)
Table 3.13: Mental Health during the economic crisis (telephone survey in Bangkok and vicinity)
Table 3.14: The Poor living in Squatters in Thailand Based on the UCDO’s estimation in 1998
Table 3.15: The annual government budget for the poverty alleviation project under the Department of Community Development between 1993-2000
Table 3.16: The number of SIP projects classified by sector
 
CHAPTER 4. Philippines
Table 4.1. Comparative Growth Rates of Selected Countries in Southeast Asia
Table 4.2. Poverty Incidence, Depth and Severity by Income-Based Measure, 1994, 1997
Table 4.3. Human Development and Gender-related Ratios for Selected Southeast Asian Countries (1997)
Table 4.4. Social Allocation Ratios, 1995-2000
Table 4.5. Social Sector Expenditure 1997-1999
 
CHAPTER 5. MALAYSIA
Table 5.1. Incidence of Poverty by Rural-Urban Strata in Malaysia, 1970 and 1990
Table 5.2. Distribution of Professionals in Malaysia by Ethnicity, 1994
Table 5.3. Incidence of Poverty, 1970-1997 (% of households)
Table 5.4. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by sector, 1995-1998 (% growth)
Table 5.5. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by Sector, 1998 and 1999 (%)
Table 5.6. Percentage Distribution of Labor Force by Gender and Employment by Sectors, 1990, 1996-2000
Table 5.7. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by Industrial Origin (RM Million), 1995 - 2000 (in 1978 constant prices)
 
CHAPTER 6. VIETNAM
Figure 6.1: Annual growth rate of GDP (%)
Figure 6.2: Sectoral structure of GDP in 1985-1995
Figure 6.4: Incidence of poverty in 1993 and 1998
Figure 6.5: Poverty rate according to MOLISA assessment
Figure 6.6: Growth rate of Vietnam's exports (%)
Figure 6.7: Devaluation of some Asian currencies
Figure 6.8: Unemployment rate in urban areas and underemployment rate in rural areas
Table 6.1: Main economic indicators
Table 6.2: Human Development Index Rank of Asian Countries in 1999
Table 6.3: Growth of the food production
Table 6.4: Human Development Index 1990-1997
Table 6.5: Poverty lines
Table 6.6: Poverty rate by region in 1993 and 1998 (%)
Table 6.7: Structure of capital investment (%)
Table 6.8: The dynamics of FDI inflows into Vietnam
Table 6.9: Exchange rate of some Asian currencies
Table 6.10: Structure of the state budget (% of GDP)
Table 6.11: Current expenditures of the state budget for social services
Table 6.12: Public social safety nets in Vietnam
Table 6.13: Financial plan of HEPR for 1998-2000
Table 6.14: Micro-credit systems in Vietnam
Table 6.15: Summary of the main formal financial institutions
 
CHAPTER 7
Figure 7.1: Recent and Projected Population Change in Southeast Asia, 1990-2025
Figure 7.2: Projected Growth of Population Aged 65 Years and Over, 1995-2050
Figure 7.3: Percent of Population Living in Urban Areas for Selected Years, 1950-1994, and Projected 2025
Figure 7.4: The Social Policy Milieu: Types of Risks and Policy Responses
 

SOCIAL SAFETY NET PROGRAMMES IN
SELECTED SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRIES 1997-2000

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
 
KEY MESSAGES
The Canadian–led project jointly carried out with researchers from five Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam) investigated the social impact of the financial crisis between 1997 and 2000 focusing on the impact on the poor in these countries. The project was carried out over the period June 1999- September 2000 and involved a preparation of a report that includes a general policy review and recommendations, plus individual country chapters prepared by the Southeast Asian project participants. The project participants met for workshops held in Manila in July 1999, in Vancouver in October 1999, in Dalat, Vietnam in January 2000, and at a policy workshop attended by policy commentators from Southeast Asian countries in Bangkok in July 2000. A final report will be available in October 2000.
It should be stressed that the study focused specifically on:
 
1.     programmes developed and delivered in response to the monetary crisis in Southeast Asia between July 1997 and July 2000 which we suggest should be accurately labelled as social safety net programmes.
2.     programmes developed by government, NGO and private sector to cope with this situation.
3.     making recommendations on lessons learnt from these programmes for incorporation in future policy development.
 
MAIN FINDINGS
1.     Most Southeast Asian countries in the study had well developed programmes of poverty reduction in place at the time of the onset of the financial crisis in July 1997. Most of these were long term programmes that resulted in a decline in the numbers in poverty over the last ten years.
2.     Most governments (particularly the most severely impacted of Indonesia and Thailand) were initially not well-prepared for the severity of the impact.
3.     Differences that emerged between rural and urban populations. The study found that the impact of the crisis was initially much more severe in urban areas where unemployment, and rising costs of living were worst for the urban poor. There were real difficulties in providing data on the effects of the crisis. Lack of information led to reliance on unsystematic reporting which led to exaggerated reports.
4.     The study found that governments generally developed responses out of existing poverty reduction programmes but later developed programmes directed at specifically targeted areas such as livelihood creation, etc.
5.     The study found that NGO responses were valuable particularly in targeting problems such as the reduced nutritional intake among the poor (e.g. school lunch programmes) and reduced access to health facilities.
6.     The study found that there was differential impact by gender. Women were more adversely effected by the crisis. For instance, in Indonesia the reduction of urban unemployment among males was associated with an increase of the numbers of women working in the informal sector.
7.     The study found that the coping responses at the household level were the single most important contribution to alleviating the worst impact of the crisis. Household strategies were very diverse ranging from the return of urban workers to rural areas, or creating alternative income opportunities to reducing household expenditure.
8.     The study provides exemplary case studies of responses developed by the various sectors which provide information that can inform future policy making.
9.     The study found that in general there are few government agencies that have a mandate for quick response in such crisis.
10. The study found that the short-term economic crisis is not a one time phenomenon in the current global phase of development and that governments should plan to develop programmes and institutional responses for future crises. Models of institutional response systems exist for natural disasters that could be useful for developing effective institutional responses.
11. In the light of the above findings the following recommendations are made.
 
MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS
1.     That governments should establish some form of social safety net policy unit which would be charged with (a) developing better systems of quick data collection on the social impact of the crisis on the poor. (b) developing quick response programmes for alleviating social impact on the poor (c) developing systems of more effectively targeting the most severely impacted groups , (d) developing the most effective methods of implementation and (e) developing systems of effective monitoring of the programmes. Ideally such social safety net policy units should be interdepartmental and include representatives from the NGO and private sector.
2.     That governments should encourage the development of various social insurance programmes for those that can afford it to be delivered by the private sector and other sectors.
3.     That governments continue to develop more effective measures of poverty that can respond to rapid changes.
4.     That governments identify ongoing financial programmes for such crisis provision. The concept of social insurance funds used in many developing countries is one such response.
5.     That governments ensure effective targeting of programmes to reach vulnerable groups such as the elderly, women and children.
6.     That governments incorporate risk management into social policy programmes with broader incorporation of the poor, NGOs and the private sector in coalitions.
 
SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HUMAN RESOURCE development WORKING GROUP
1.     That governments of the APEC association set-up mechanisms for sharing and exchanging information on short term social safety nets programmes.
2.     That governments specifically encourage further policy-driven research on the most effective institutional responses to short term crises particularly in areas identified in recommendation 1.
3.     That governments pursue discussions on how the concept of risk management for social policy in crisis situations can be built into social policy formation.
 
FUTURE PLANS
The report will be disseminated as widely as possible through publication, web site and newspaper articles.
 
List of Project Participants
 

INDONESIA
Bakti Setiawan
Center for Environmental Studies
Gadjah Mada University
Jl. Lingkungan Budaya, Sekip Utara,
Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
tel: 62-274-902320, 902321, 902322
fax: 62-274-580854
 
 
PHILIPPINES
Cynthia Bautista
Centre for Integrative and Development Studies
Ang Bahay ng Alumni Building,
Magsaysay Avenue
University of the Philippines, Diliman Campus
Quezon City, 1101, Philippines
tel/fax: (63-2) 435-9283
fax: (63-2) 929-3540, 928-9691, 435-9283
 
 
 
 
 
MALAYSIA
Sity Daud
Dept. of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
tel: 603-829-2829 ext. 2583
fax: 603-8-929-3540
 
 
THAILAND
Somchai Suksiriserekul
Faculty of Economics
Thammasat University
Prachan Road, Bangkok, 10200 Thailand
tel: (66-2) 613-2410
or (66-2) 221 6111 extension 2410
fax: (66-2) 224-9428
 
 
VIETNAM
Vu Tuan Anh
Institute of Economics
27 Tran Xuan Soan, Hanoi, Vietnam
tel/fax: 84-4-8227802

 

CANADA
Terry McGee (Project co-ordinator)
Institute of Asian Research
University of British Columbia
1855 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2
tel: (604) 822-3937, 822-4688
fax: (604) 822-5207
 
Geoff Hainsworth
Centre for Southeast Asia Research
University of British Columbia
1855 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2
tel: (604) 822-6213, 822-3805
fax: (604) 822-5207
 
Leonora Angeles
Centre for Human Settlements
University of British Columbia
2206 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3
tel: (604) 822-9312
fax: (604) 822-6164
 
 
Steffanie Scott
Dept of Geography
217-1984 West Mall
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, BC, V6T 1N4, Canada
fax: (604) 822-6150

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